For displaced villagers living near the border of Georgia's breakaway region of South Ossetia, the war in Ukraine has brought back terrifying memories of Russian bombardments.
"I know what it feels like hiding in the basement while your village is being bombed. I know that horrible feeling of fear," said Mari Otinashvili, whose family fled the shelling of her village when she was a 13-year-old in 2008.
After a ceasefire ended that five-day war, Russia recognised South Ossetia and another breakaway region, Abkhazia, as independent states and garrisoned troops there.
In Khurvaleti, Valia Valishvili, 88, is stranded on the side of the village controlled by the Russian-backed authorities.
"I am all alone. The guards forbid my family members to come into the occupied territory. If they do cross the border, they will be jailed," Valishvili said.
Valishvili said Russian forces had told her to leave her home but she refused, saying she had promised her late husband she would not abandon their home.
"They will take everything when I am gone: all my land that is Georgian," Valishvili said.
(Photography and reporting by Daro Sulakauri; Additional reporting by Jake Cordell; Writing by Frank Jack Daniel; Text editing by Daniel Flynn; Photo editing by Gabrielle Fonseca Johnson; Layout by Eve Watling)