With precious few trees left to slow the wind in this once fertile corner of southern Madagascar, red sand is blowing everywhere: onto fields, villages and roads, and into the eyes of children waiting for food aid parcels.
Four years of drought, the worst in decades, along with deforestation caused by people burning or cutting down trees to make charcoal or to open up land for farming, have transformed the area into a dust bowl.
PRAYING FOR RAIN
The food crisis in the south built up over a period of years and has interconnected causes including drought, deforestation, environmental damage, poverty, COVID-19 and population growth, according to local authorities and aid organisations.
With a population of 30 million, Madagascar has always known extreme weather events, but scientists say these will likely increase in frequency and severity as human-induced climate change pushes temperatures higher.
"If there's no rain, I don't know what we'll do. We'll pray to God," he said.
(Photo Editing: Kezia Levitas; Writing: Estelle Shirbon; Text Editing: Frank Jack Daniel; Video: Christophe Van Der Perre and David Doyle; Layout: Kezia Levitas)