From the shores of Indonesia's Bangka island, miners like Hendra head out by boat every day to scores of crudely built wooden pontoons dotted off the coast that are equipped to dredge the seabed for lucrative deposits of tin ore.
Indonesia is the world's biggest exporter of tin used in everything from food packaging to electronics and now green technologies.
Still, rising tin prices are an incentive to overcome these obstacles.
Amri, an unlicensed miner in Bangka, said he had restarted his land operations after a 14-month hiatus when tin prices rose due to tighter global supplies.
(Photo editing Marika Kochiashvili; Text editing Ed Davis and Karishma Singh; Layout Julia Dalrymple)