Mursi's fall

Mursi's fall

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This image of crowds of Egyptians gathered in Tahrir Square recalls scenes from 2011, when autocrat Hosni Mubarak was toppled. But now, over two years later, it is elected President Mohamed Mursi who has been brought down. The Egyptian army ousted Mursi a year after he was sworn in as the country’s first democratically elected leader, delighting millions who hated Islamist rule but incensing his supporters and those who opposed military intervention.

. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Suhaib Salem

Egyptian military helicopters were greeted with cheers as they flew over crowds of anti-Mursi protesters rallying in Tahrir Square on July 1, after massive demonstrations against the president broke out on the anniversary of his inauguration the day before.

The protest movement was rooted in a liberal opposition that lost elections to Islamists last year, but its ranks were swelled by anger over broken promises on the economy, shrinking real incomes and lengthening lines for fuel.

With millions having taken to the streets, the army gave Mursi an ultimatum to agree to share power within 48 hours, or else have military leaders impose their own road map on the country.

. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Khaled Abdullah

Scores of Mursi supporters and members of the Muslim brotherhood react after the Egyptian army made a statement on July 3, effectively declaring the removal of Mursi as president.

Flanked by military leaders, religious authorities and political figures, the head of Egypt’s armed forces, General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi made a televised broadcast, suspending the constitution and appointing the head of the constitutional court as head of state.

Some Mursi supporters vented their anger at the army's statement, shouting "Sisi is void! Islam is coming! We will not leave!"

. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Amr Abdallah Dalsh

Soldiers take up positions near the Republican Guard headquarters on the day of Mursi's ouster. The following day, with Mursi in military custody according to army and Brotherhood sources, judge Adli Mansour was sworn in as interim president.

After this latest dramatic twist in the tumultuous period since the 2011 revolution that toppled Mubarak, the timeline below takes a look at the major events that have occurred in Egypt over the past two and a half years.

Timeline

1 / 60

Police fight with thousands of Egyptians who defied a government ban to protest against President Hosni Mubarak's 30-year-old rule, firing tear gas at the crowds and dragging away demonstrators.

An anti-government protester cries out as his relative is injured during clashes with riot police in the port city of Suez.
. SUEZ, Egypt. REUTERS/Mohamed Abd El-Ghany

An anti-government protester cries out as his relative is injured during clashes with riot police in the port city of Suez.

Mubarak clings to power in Egypt after days of popular protests, refusing to bow to demonstrators' demands that he quit and ordering troops and tanks into cities overnight.

A protester draped in an Egyptian flag climbs on an army tank to shake hands with a soldier in Cairo.
. Cairo, Egypt. Reuters/Yannis Behrakis

A protester draped in an Egyptian flag climbs on an army tank to shake hands with a soldier in Cairo.

Egyptians declare triumph over their "Pharaoh", dancing, singing, cheering and waving flags to celebrate the downfall of Mubarak after 18 days of mass protests against his rule. A military council is formed to run the country's affairs.

Anti-government demonstrators celebrate in Tahrir Square after the announcement of Mubarak's resignation.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Dylan Martinez

Anti-government demonstrators celebrate in Tahrir Square after the announcement of Mubarak's resignation.

A big majority of Egyptians approve amendments to the constitution in a referendum, opening the door to early elections seen as favouring Islamists and figures affiliated with the old ruling party.

Mubarak, accused of corruption and involvement in killing protesters, goes on trial. The former president is wheeled behind the bars of a courtroom cage in a hospital bed to hear charges that could carry the death penalty.

Egyptian riot police stand outside the police academy where the trial of Mubarak was to take place.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Amr Abdallah Dalsh

Egyptian riot police stand outside the police academy where the trial of Mubarak was to take place.

Egypt's ruling military council appoints Kamal Ganzouri as prime minister to form "a national salvation government" to replace the cabinet which resigned.

An Egyptian soldier stands guard in front of a polling station during Egypt's first parliamentary election since the fall of Mubarak.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Ahmed Jadallah

An Egyptian soldier stands guard in front of a polling station during Egypt's first parliamentary election since the fall of Mubarak.

Egypt's parliament opens for the first time since The Muslim Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) was declared the biggest winner in the first free vote in decades.

Muslim Brotherhood supporters celebrate outside Egypt's parliament.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Suhaib Salem

Muslim Brotherhood supporters celebrate outside Egypt's parliament.

A woman searches for her name outside a polling station during the first round of presidential elections.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Mohammed Salem

A woman searches for her name outside a polling station during the first round of presidential elections.

Egyptians celebrate outside a court that sentenced Mubarak to life in prison for complicity in killing protesters. Some people inside the court who had wanted the former president to receive the death penalty scuffle with security guards.

Mubarak is wheeled out of the courtroom after his trial in Cairo.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Stringer

Mubarak is wheeled out of the courtroom after his trial in Cairo.

Mubarak supporters respond to the news that the former president was sentenced to life imprisonment.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Mohammed Salem

Mubarak supporters respond to the news that the former president was sentenced to life imprisonment.

Relatives of people who died during the revolution react after hearing Mubarak’s sentence.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Suhaib Salem

Relatives of people who died during the revolution react after hearing Mubarak’s sentence.

A man sleeps in the dust during a sit-in at Tahrir Square the day after Mubarak was sentenced.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Suhaib Salem

A man sleeps in the dust during a sit-in at Tahrir Square the day after Mubarak was sentenced.

Demonstrators wave as they chant anti-military council slogans during a protest in Cairo. Egyptian pro-democracy campaigners called for a new uprising, enraged that a court had spared Mubarak his life over the killing of protesters.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Mohamed Abd El Ghany

Demonstrators wave as they chant anti-military council slogans during a protest in Cairo. Egyptian pro-democracy campaigners called for a new uprising, enraged that a court had spared Mubarak his life over the killing of protesters.

Egypt's supreme court dissolves parliament and rules to keep Ahmed Shafik, Mubarak's last premier, in the June 16-17 presidential race, overruling a law that would have barred top Mubarak-era figures from politics.

A protester takes part in a demonstration at Tahrir Square after the supreme court dissolved parliament and Mubarak’s premier was allowed to continue his bid for presidency.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Ahmed Jadallah

A protester takes part in a demonstration at Tahrir Square after the supreme court dissolved parliament and Mubarak’s premier was allowed to continue his bid for presidency.

Presidential candidate Mohamed Mursi of the Muslim Brotherhood waves to a crowd gathered outside a mosque after attending Friday Prayers.
. Cairo, Egypt. REUTERS/Ahmed Jaddalah

Presidential candidate Mohamed Mursi of the Muslim Brotherhood waves to a crowd gathered outside a mosque after attending Friday Prayers.

Supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood take part in a demonstration at Tahrir Square in Cairo, as allegations of fraud delayed the result of Egypt's presidential election. The Brotherhood, which claimed victory, called for street protests against moves by the ruling generals to deny them power.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Suhaib Salem

Supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood take part in a demonstration at Tahrir Square in Cairo, as allegations of fraud delayed the result of Egypt's presidential election. The Brotherhood, which claimed victory, called for street protests against moves by the ruling generals to deny them power.

Mursi is declared Egypt's first freely elected president, to the joy of his Muslim Brotherhood supporters. In an address to the people, many of whom voiced fears of a threat to secular traditions, Mursi insists: "I am today a president to all Egyptians".

Mursi supporters pray in Tahrir Square during celebrations for his election victory.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Amr Abdallah Dalsh

Mursi supporters pray in Tahrir Square during celebrations for his election victory.

Mursi waves to his supporters while surrounded by members of the presidential guard in Cairo's Tahrir Square, where he took an informal oath of office on June 29 in a slap at the generals trying to limit his power.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Amr Abdallah Dalsh

Mursi waves to his supporters while surrounded by members of the presidential guard in Cairo's Tahrir Square, where he took an informal oath of office on June 29 in a slap at the generals trying to limit his power.

President Mohamed Mursi waits before giving a speech at Cairo University on the day that he officially took office.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Stringer

President Mohamed Mursi waits before giving a speech at Cairo University on the day that he officially took office.

Egypt's Islamist-led parliament reconvenes after being summoned by new President Mohamed Mursi in an open challenge to the generals who dissolved it the previous month.

Mursi dismisses Cairo's two top generals and quashes a military order that curbed his powers.

Mursi sits during a meeting with South Korea's presidential envoy and former Foreign Minister Yu Myung-hwan at the presidential palace.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Amr Abdallah Dalsh

Mursi sits during a meeting with South Korea's presidential envoy and former Foreign Minister Yu Myung-hwan at the presidential palace.

Mursi triggers controversy by issuing a decree giving himself broad new powers and shielding an Islamist-dominated assembly writing Egypt's new constitution from legal challenge.

A demonstrator lies passed out from tear gas fired by riot police, during protests sparked by Mursi's decision to grant himself sweeping new powers.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Mohamed Abd El Ghany

A demonstrator lies passed out from tear gas fired by riot police, during protests sparked by Mursi's decision to grant himself sweeping new powers.

Thousands of Egyptians protest against Mursi after an Islamist-led assembly races through approval of a new constitution in a bid to end the crisis over the Islamist leader's newly expanded powers.

People stand next to graffiti of a smiley face on a concrete road block built by Egyptian armed forces in Tahrir Square.
. Cairo, Egypt. REUTERS/Mohamed Abd El Ghany

People stand next to graffiti of a smiley face on a concrete road block built by Egyptian armed forces in Tahrir Square.

Backers of Mursi and members of the Muslim Brotherhood shout slogans during the funerals for fellow supporters who died in clashes at the presidential palace.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Amr Abdallah Dalsh

Backers of Mursi and members of the Muslim Brotherhood shout slogans during the funerals for fellow supporters who died in clashes at the presidential palace.

Republican Guard soldiers stand in front of a mural depicting former President Mubarak (right), former Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi (centre) and then-President Mursi, drawn on the wall of the presidential palace.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Amr Abdallah Dalsh

Republican Guard soldiers stand in front of a mural depicting former President Mubarak (right), former Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi (centre) and then-President Mursi, drawn on the wall of the presidential palace.

Mursi cancels a decree that gave him sweeping powers and sparked huge protests, but does not delay a referendum on the constitution as his opponents demanded.

A Mursi supporter sits and prays as riot policemen stand in line to separate pro- and anti-government protesters in Alexandria, on the eve of a final vote on a new constitution shaped by Islamists.
. ALEXANDRIA, Egypt. REUTERS/Khaled Abdullah

A Mursi supporter sits and prays as riot policemen stand in line to separate pro- and anti-government protesters in Alexandria, on the eve of a final vote on a new constitution shaped by Islamists.

A woman looks for her name at a polling station before voting during the second and final round of a referendum on Egypt's new constitution.
. GIZA, Egypt. REUTERS/Khaled Abdullah

A woman looks for her name at a polling station before voting during the second and final round of a referendum on Egypt's new constitution.

Policemen stand guard near a poster put up by Mursi supporters outside the constitutional court.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Khaled Abdullah

Policemen stand guard near a poster put up by Mursi supporters outside the constitutional court.

Egyptian voters overwhelmingly approve a constitution drafted by Mursi's allies, giving the ruling Islamists their third straight electoral victory since Mubarak was toppled in 2011.

With their patience already stretched after years of upheaval, Egyptians - from the capital Cairo to smaller towns like Zagazig - appear to be nearing the point where discontent could explode into a new wave of unrest.

A protester stands in front of Egyptian security forces on guard outside the French embassy in Cairo, during a demonstration against France's military intervention in Mali.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Suhaib Salem

A protester stands in front of Egyptian security forces on guard outside the French embassy in Cairo, during a demonstration against France's military intervention in Mali.

Protesters flee from tear gas fired by riot police during demonstrations on the eve of the second anniversary of the uprising that toppled Mubarak.
. Cairo, Egypt. REUTERS/Mohamed Abd El Ghany

Protesters flee from tear gas fired by riot police during demonstrations on the eve of the second anniversary of the uprising that toppled Mubarak.

Mursi cut short a visit to Europe to deal with the deadliest violence since he took power. More than 50 people were killed during the preceding seven days of unrest, as anti-Mursi demonstrators took to the streets on the second anniversary of Egypt's revolution.

An anti-Mursi demonstrator flees teargas fired by riot police during clashes along a street leading to the Muslim Brotherhood’s national headquarters.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Amr Abdallah Dalsh

An anti-Mursi demonstrator flees teargas fired by riot police during clashes along a street leading to the Muslim Brotherhood’s national headquarters.

Egypt's parliament approves a revised election law setting rules for a parliamentary poll later this year, but opposition politicians denounce the new statute and repeat a threat to boycott the vote.

Mubarak waves to supporters inside a cage in a courtroom in Cairo. His retrial for complicity in the killing of protestors was aborted when the presiding judge withdrew from the case and referred it to another court.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Reuters Photographers

Mubarak waves to supporters inside a cage in a courtroom in Cairo. His retrial for complicity in the killing of protestors was aborted when the presiding judge withdrew from the case and referred it to another court.

Former President Mubarak returns to court for a retrial on charges of complicity in the murder of protesters. The trail had been due to begin the month before, but was delayed when the previous judge recused himself.

People queue for subsidised bread in front of a bakery in Alexandria. Millions of Egyptians depend on the bread that sells for less than 1 U.S. cent per loaf - a state-regulated price unchanged since 1989 - and the availability and price of the staple remains one of Egypt's most explosive political issues.
. ALEXANDRIA, Egypt. REUTERS/Asmaa Waguih

People queue for subsidised bread in front of a bakery in Alexandria. Millions of Egyptians depend on the bread that sells for less than 1 U.S. cent per loaf - a state-regulated price unchanged since 1989 - and the availability and price of the staple remains one of Egypt's most explosive political issues.

Anti-Mursi protesters gather during a massive demonstration at Tahrir Square one year after Mursi came to power.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Mohamed Abd El Ghany

Anti-Mursi protesters gather during a massive demonstration at Tahrir Square one year after Mursi came to power.

Millions of Egyptians flood into the streets on the first anniversary of Mursi's inauguration to demand that he resign in the biggest challenge so far to rule by his Muslim Brotherhood.

Anti-Mursi protesters wave the Egyptian flag and shout anti-Islamist slogans as they stand at the Muslim Brotherhood's national headquarters, which were set alight and ransacked.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Amr Abdallah Dalsh

Anti-Mursi protesters wave the Egyptian flag and shout anti-Islamist slogans as they stand at the Muslim Brotherhood's national headquarters, which were set alight and ransacked.

Egypt's armed forces hand Mursi an ultimatum to share power, giving feuding politicians 48 hours to compromise or have the army impose its own road map for the country.

Mursi rebuffs the army ultimatum to force a resolution to Egypt's political crisis, saying he had not been consulted and would pursue his own plans for national reconciliation.

Anti-Mursi protesters wave flags in Tahrir Square shortly before the army's ultimatum expired.
. Cairo, Egypt. REUTERS/Suhaib Salem

Anti-Mursi protesters wave flags in Tahrir Square shortly before the army's ultimatum expired.

Egypt's armed forces overthrow Mursi and announce a political transition, to the joy of hundreds of thousands of anti-Mursi protesters in Tahrir Square and the censure of his Muslim brotherhood supporters.

The head of Egypt's Constitutional Court, Adli Mansour, is sworn in as interim president.

Egyptian military jets fly in formation over Cairo as Adli Mansour is sworn in as interim head of state.
. CAIRO, Egypt. REUTERS/Suhaib Salem

Egyptian military jets fly in formation over Cairo as Adli Mansour is sworn in as interim head of state.